Meighen Island is a small, isolated island that sits in the High North, just west of Axel Heiberg Island. This was one of the last Arctic islands to be discovered, as it is continually surrounded by ice. The coastal margins of Meighen Island are flat, but the island rises to a central dome. This dome is made up of rolling hills, the tallest of which is permanently capped with ice and stands 150-metres high. The island's surface is mainly gravel. During the spring and summer, meltwater streams from the ice cap flow to the coast.
It appears that Meighen Island has never been occupied, as no traces of Inuit camps have been found. Meighen Island's only close neighbours are several smaller, more isolated islets: Perley Island and the Fay Islands. Perley Island is crescent-shaped and lies just north of Meighen Island. The Fay Islands form a group of four tiny islands situated between Meighen and Axel Heiberg islands. They are so small that they have been mistaken for glaciers with heavy loads of sediment.